Pictures showed the three vessels crammed with weapons sail through the Bosphorus strait – that links the Black Sea to the Mediterranean.
Putin’s ships are allegedly heading for the Tartus naval base on the northern coast of Syria.
It comes after the US, UK and France fired more than 100 missiles at Syria in response to a chemical attack on civilians in Douma.
Russia condemned the attack on its ally and promised there would be “consequences” for the strike by the West.
War fears are stretched amid warnings Western action in Syria could lead to a direct clash with Russian president Putin.